Information on documents

The Scientific and Technical Collection of Czech Railways is a Collection of Papers (“VTS ČD”) from the field of railway transport. Its aim is to enable publishing of especially original specialised works dealing with technical and technological challenges and principal issues in such areas as management, economy and ecology regarding railway transport.

 

1995 / 01

THE CZECH RAILWAYS SYSTEM MODERNIZATION

The article deals with the principles of modernization of the Czech Railways system. The modernization focuses first of all on four main railway corridors. The article gives the parameters of modernization and describes the method of project schedule coordination with railway systems of neighboring countries and the procedures of securing the coordination. For the modernization projects of Corridors I and II that have already been negotiated through by the Czech Republic Government the article describes also the method of financing and the anticipated implementation period. The two remaining Corridors (III and IV) will be modernized after 2000, and the commencement of building the new high-speed railways lines that would be connected to those of European system is envisaged for the period after 2005.


 Document of the article


 Václav Nováček

SIGNALLING SYSTEMS FOR CORRIDOR LINES

This article is devoted to technical conception of signalling systems for corridor lines of Czech Railways which should be applied at present and in the near future. As this is a long-term matter,changes brought about by new advanced systems are taken into account.


 Document of the article


 Václav Chudáček  Libor Lochman  Petr Varadinov

CONSEQUENCES OF LAW No. 222/94 COLL. TO CORRIDOR POWER SUPPLY SYSTÉM

The character of traction electric power demand for the supply of railway lines, so called "corridors" shows certain differences from the demand character for supply system of classical lines. This also involves specific requirements for the quality of the demand claimed by individual suppliers of electrical energy in accordance with the law No.222/94 coll. to improve the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of traction equipment in the supply network. Both on the part of the Czech Railways as the user of electrical energy and also on the part of electrical energy suppliers, every effort is being made to meet these requirements in an optimum way under existing technical and economic conditions. The contribution brings information separately for both traction current systems used on main railway lines of the Czech Railways (ČD) because their features are entirely different from EMC point of view. There is also a discussion about the approach accepted by the Czech Railways for this sphere in a form of construction of filter-compensation equipment which is considered as adequate solution from the time and financial factors. Also the features of newly developed driving vehicles are dealt with - such types which would better comply with the conditions for quality demand of traction electrical energy.


 Document of the article


 Karel Hlava

CONTRIBUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTACT GEOMETRY IN RELATIONSHIP WHEEL SET – RAIL

This contribution highlights the definition and the importance of individual characteristics of contact geometry in relationship wheel set - rail for comparison and evaluation of actual relationships arising during the operation - or for comparison of types of driving gauges. The main purpose of the contribution is to introduce KONTAKT 3 software for the evaluation of mentioned values, which has been elaborated under cooperation with DBAG at the Faculty of Transportation Means of Jan Perner at the University Pardubice, Department of Transportation. Now the equipment is in practical use at the DB Test Center in Minden.


 Document of the article


 Jiří Izer  Jaromír Zelenka  Petr Doležel

OPTIMUM METHODS FOR TAMPING, COMPACTING AND STABILISATION OF RAIL

The work center of the Railway Research Institute in Brno in cooperation with the Institute of Railway Constructions at the Technical College is now dealing with the problems of optimum approach to renewal of geometric rail position with the emphasis on economic aspects. The acquired knowledge was utilized in the design of optimum composition of machine lines for processing of regulations for the renewal of geometric rail position on line sections in operation. In subsequent stages of task solution the emphasis is primarily laid on the renewal of geometric rail position in modernizes lines and in turnouts with cement sleepers.


 Document of the article


 Zdeněk Hřebíček

STABILITY OF GEOMETRIC POSITION OF TURNOUTS ON MODERNIZED LINES

The stability of geometric position of turnouts is one of the basic conditions of safe railway operation on modern lines. By means of geodetic monitoring of space shifts on selected points on rail turnouts with respect to adjacent fixed points, it is possible to derive the pattern of force impact in individual stretch of rails cause by temperature changes and operation influences.


 Document of the article


 Pavel Zvěřina

SOLE-PLATE FASTENING OF RAILS WITH DISTANCE RINGS

The research results of superstructure behavior performed in the late eighties and early in the nineties for the Czechoslovak Railways were reflected in the requirement to eliminate vertical movement of a sleeper in the region of rail lifting wave and to reduce the static and dynamical effect between sleeper bed and gravel ballast as a condition for enhancing the stability of geometric position of rail and decreasing of maintenance costs. On the basis of these requirements, indirect fastening of rail bed with distance rings and spring penefoil washers was developed which represents a new approach to solution of superstructure design. This fastening decreases static and dynamical effect from traffic to railway superstructure and substructure and at the same time secures the separation of vertical movement of rail and sleeper in the region of rail lifting wave. On tested sections measurements were performed with this type of fastening and the behavior of rail, as a whole, was monitored. The results show that this type of rail fastening increases the stability of geometrical position of rail together with the reduction of maintenance costs.


 Document of the article


 Antonín Vymětal

VTS 01 - Complete Issue

Resume of the Anthology No. 01

1996 / 02

The possibility of applying logistics in railway transport

The thorough application of logistics in principle may contribute to a significant improvement in railway transport services, increased interest in freight transport, and improved business returns. In recent years, Czech Railways has implemented a number of changes in this direction. The quality of services being offered has increased, especially for IC and EC trains, travellers are better informed before the departure of trains in comparison with the past, work is going on to raise the top speeds for certain sections of track, ČD is actively participating in the creation of integrated transport systems, and the railway policy has changed. Certain shortcomings are evident however, in that these changes are being introduced slowly, all opportunties for additional improvements are not being utilized, and there are great reserves still untapped for the promotion of the services being offered.


 Document of the article


 Milan Hobza

Changes in freight transport technologies

The article deals with the basic innovations in freight transport technology, with the goal of increasing the competitiveness of railway transport on the transport market in the single car shipment system. Changes in technology lie in applying time plan regimes, concentrating train make-up, minimalizing car re-arrangement, introducing time discrete technology in re-arranging cars, and re-organizing the activities of marshalling yards. The changes in technology have resulted in increased transport speed and reliability, partial time separation between passenger and freight transport, and higher work efficiency.


 Document of the article


 Vlastislav Mojžíš

Rolling Stock at Czech Railways - Present and Future

The introduction contains a brief overview of the rolling stock of Czech Railways and trends in inventories between 1980 and 1995. On this basis are formulated principles for modernisation of cars. The necessity for balance between purchase of new rolling stock and modernisation and renovation of older rolling stock is stressed. A table of requirements for the altered structure of particular types of rolling stock is given.


 Document of the article


 Ferdinand Gottmann

Railcars for Regional Transport

The article describes the Europian development trends in the field of railcars for regional transport and analyses the development concept for new vehicles. Modern vehicles for regional transport, developed by famous European manufacturers, are introduced. Analysis of requirements of a design project for a regional transport vehicle is carried out.


 Document of the article


 Pavel Pavlousek  Michal Karel  Vladimír Klomínek  Jan Lutrýn

Other possibilities for increasing the adhesive properties of cars

This contribution deals with the interrelation between adhesion and friction in the contact of the wheel and the track as a hypothesis of a unitary interpretation of an absolute adhesive characteristic. On the basis of this theoretic model areas for improvement and potential for further increase of the adhesive properties of cars are indicated.


 Document of the article


 Jaroslav Čáp

Laboratory for measurement and assessment of contact geometry

This article acquaints the professional public with the work of the laboratory for the measurement and assessment of wheel-set/rail contract geometry. The laboratory's core activities involve servicing work for Czech Railways and other organisations. The article describes the central activity of the laboratory in measuring the gauge of wheel-sets and rail sections in operational conditions of travel and railway-car repair and maintenance and also its work in assessment and presentation of the results of measurement. The contribution describes KONTAKT 3 software for assessment and official recording of wheel-set/rail contact geometry calculated. In addition to this core activity, the laboratory carries out simulations of railway car journeys using an in-house software system.


 Document of the article


 Jaromír Zelenka  Jiří Izer

ČD activities in the area of reducing energy costs for electric traction

Electric traction, aside from indisputable technical, economic, and ecological advantages also has a significant reverse impact on its surroundings including the electric system which feeds it. In the case of the 3 kV DC system, this impact is primarily stray currents causing corrosion in systems placed nearby, while the converters are essentially suitable from a perspective of affecting the energy feed system. In the case of the single-phase 25 kV, 50 Hz system however, in recent years it has been necessary to equip the original simple traction substations with expensive supplementary systems. These systems are intended to reduce unfavorable feedback, especially from electric locomotives on the 110 kV power grid. The energy drawn by them makes up a considerable share of the reactive power demand worsening the power factor of energy drawn, furthermore the curve of the current drawn by these cars is distorted by higher harmonics. Suppliers of electric energy, the power plants, are currently gradually raising the criteria of quality for electric energy, based upon the provisions of law no. 266/1994 Coll. effective since 1.1.1995 and its accompanying public notices from the MPO ČR including internal power company standards. The article summarizes the long-term approach of ČSD and ČD in their attempts to sufficiently meet these requirements technically and economically. These efforts have as of today led to the equipment of the majority of power substations of single-phase systems with regulated filter compensation systems, even though this did not solve the actual cause of the problem, lying in the now unsuitable design of the traction circuits of the locomotives.


 Document of the article


 Karel Hlava  Václav Boček

6 kV, 75 Hz power feeds using static frequency converters

Track safety systems on a 25 kV, 50 Hz single-phase system, are fed with a 6 kV, 75 Hz track cable line. The change in frequency was originally carried out by rotating converters fed from the 50 Hz network. The development of semi-conductors allowed for energy to be acquired at 75 Hz using static frequency converters. The electric qualities of the cable line fed from these converters (especially the capacity) fundamentally affected the design and the safeguards for the static converters, which were originally intended for feeding from rotary machines. Along with this, the user placed great emphasis on the high reliability of the entire system so that it met the standards of ČD safety equipment. After the initial difficulties, it was possible in cooperation with the manufacturer to develop and operationally test the set of 50 kVA and 90 kVA static converters, offering not only high energy efficiency but also other operational advantages (such as resistance to short circuits, synchronization with neighbouring converters, limiting failures in the cable leads), which rotary converters could not provide.


 Document of the article


 Zdeněk Beneš  Václav Boček

The ZZ1-3 Back-up source for feeding safety systems

Railway stations have back-up power sources using diesel motors to supply necessary systems (safety systems, emergency lighting) in case of local network failure. This design has certain problems both operationally (maintenance of the diesel motor, start-up delays) as well as ecologically (fossil fuels, exhaust, noise during operation). With the use of high performance semi-conductors, it became possible to develop and test back-up sources using static converter fed from the traction catenary of a single phase 25 kV, 50 Hz system and offering three phase voltage of 3x380 V, 50 Hz. Aside from eliminating the problems of the diesel motors listed above, this design has additional significant advantages (stabilization of output voltage, quick renewal of voltage during blackouts, high energy efficiency). Further developments are expected through the power feed of this back-up source from the traction line of a 3 kV DC catenary system using a converter for heating points.


 Document of the article


 Zdeněk Beneš  Josef Černý

Quantitative and qualitative parameters of the ČD 6 kV power feed network

A reliable and continuous power feed for safety systems is a necessary pre-condition for safe operations on ČD (Czech Railways). The power distribution network uses a voltage of 6 kV and frequencies of 50 and 75 Hz. Power feeds are provided using vhv, hv, or lv voltages. The power feeds are provided directly at ČD feed stations, or from independent transformer stations, and in some cases from the lv distribution network. Meeting the requirements of the law, public notices, and the conditions established in MF ČR price guidelines affects the final price of the electric energy. Provided that all regulations and conditions are met, the consumer pays only the basic price given by the price guidelines. When these conditions are not met, there are various price surcharges. The article shows how a single indicator, the "demand purity" power factor is determined. The text also explains cases where the value for this power factor is not met and a price surcharge is added to the base price of the electric energy. In addition, the article mentions the content of the higher harmonics in the current which is drawn to feed safety systems. For the time being, there are no direct financial sanctions (aside from the greater authority of the State Energy Inspection Agency), but the energy supplier may limit or discontinue the supply of electricity. Even in this case, necessary measures must be taken to eliminate the cause.


 Document of the article


 Jiří Krupica

Supplying modern passenger cars with electric power

There is a comprehensive description of the options for the technical design of central power sources including the use of IGBT and its comparison with the use of GTO thyristors. The article is supported with a number of graphs. There is also a table of requirements for the electrical equipment of a railway passenger car as laid down by the amendment to decree UIC 550.


 Document of the article


 Petr Brouček

VTS 02 - Complete Issue

Resume of the Anthology No. 02

1997 / 03

DIAGNOSTICS MEANS OF MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY OF ČESKÉ DRÁHY TRACK GEOMETRY

The aim of the article is to describe two new diagnostics railway vehicles designed for the measurement of parameters of the track geometric position, namely a measuring track motor car for measurements on lines of class 2 and 3, and a measuring car for measurements of the track geometric position, track surface defects, track cross profiles, and for the determination of the railway vehicle response on modernized lines.


 Document of the article


 Štefan Mayerberger  Bohumil Vančura

DIAGNOSTICS IN THE SIGNALLING

Diagnostic devices, jigs and methods in the repair sphere of the signalling technics become at present a necessity to maintain the required quality of repairs. Therefore, the article describes and summarizes some aspects of the knowledge and experience arising from the development and operation use of diagnostic devices in the railway protection technology. The article stresses the fact that the most efficient diagnostic methods are performed in modern computer orientated systems. The diagnostics of the relay signalling devices used until now can also be performed without problems using the present technical tools, however, the economic efficiency of such solution should be carefully considered and documented.


 Document of the article


 Ivan Konečný  Libor Lochman

DIAGNOSTICS OF THE TRAIN SAFEGUARD

The article deals with the diagnostics of a line train safeguard operated on the ČD network. Its first part introduces the problematics and present situation in the diagnostics of the station any part which is carried out during the usual operation. The second part introduces a new testing device - ZZLVZ 91.1, which is especially designed for the diagnostics of the train safeguard mobile part at the places of the operation treatment of driving cars.


 Document of the article


 Karel Peška

DIAGNOSTICS IN THE JSPD DATA NETWORK

The article deals with the protocols used in the ČD data network (X.25, Frame Relay, TCP/IP). It compares the diagnostic possibilities of individual protocols. A part is devoted to the bit error rate and its effect to the block fault rate with regard to the situation in ČD. Specifically, the values which can be acquired in the ČD data network nodes are mentioned.


 Document of the article


 Arnošt Dudek  Zdeněk Vomočil

DIAGNOSTICS OF THE PRACTICABILITY AND GEOMETRIC POSITION OF THE ČD TROLLEY SYSTEM

The article deals with a catenary measuring car. The car measures the trolley wire stagger and height. During measurements the car registers the swings of its body and corrects the above mentioned measured values of the trolley wire stagger and height by the swings of the car body. The article analyses the results of and experience arising from measured data and their use in the maintenance.


 Document of the article


 Josef Konvičný  Jiří Kaštura  Libor Zátopek  Marcela Šaňková

PROTECTION OF EMBEDDED DEVICES AGAINST NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF STRAY EARTH CURRENTS

The article describes in an encyclopedic form the legislative and technical measures for the protection of conductive embedded devices and structures against the effects of direct stray earth currents. The preventive activities performed by a ČD specialized workplace are stressed. The specialized workplace also provides for technical development tasks and cooperates at their solving.


 Document of the article


 Ivo Laníček  Jan Matouš  Karel Černovský

FAILURE OF HEAT TREATED SPRING STEELS IN THE ČD OPERATION

Determination of the state of stress using the method of finite elements and failure characteristics of materials. Prediction of expansion of the fatigue failure in the spring steel elements (the contribution for the diagnostics should be seen there).


 Document of the article


 Jan Kout

VTS 03 - Complete Issue

Resume of the Anthology No. 03

1997 / 04

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

The article sums up the philosophy of creating the specialized information systems providing the support to the top management. Involved are the tasks providing presentation of operation and economic data in a form facilitating management´s evaluating or taking the strategic decisions or bussiness plans.


 Document of the article


 Miloslav Jakeš  David Krásenský

ECONOMIC CONTROLLING AT CZECH RAILWAYS

Expected introduction of the integrated information system SAP R/3 at Czech Railways is aimed firstly at the development of modules covering the economic controlling. The article characterizes the scope, conditions and problems of system implementation into the given economic environment at ČD, appraises the impacts upon the management system and informs about first experiences and further plans.


 Document of the article


 Jan Pokorný

POSSIBILITIES OF INFORMATICS DEVELOPMENT IN THE ČD COMMERCIAL & OPERATING DIVISION

The paper describes the present and planned intentions in the use of information systems for passenger and freight traffic management. The information systems are defined in accordance with their characteristic functions and their internal and external interrelations are explained.


 Document of the article


 Jan Bartek  Marek Neustadt

SOME ASPECTS OF THE AUTOMATED SUPPORT OF THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE OBJECT-RELATED DOCUMENTATION

The article characterizes the methods of the specialized software tools employment for creating the complex railway infrastructure object-related documentation and evidence. It also deals with some general aspects of this procedure in respect of ČD economics as well as the relation to the other software-assisted projects under realization at ČD.


 Document of the article


 Robert Číhal

EMPLOYMENT OF THE GEOINFORMATION SYSTEMS IN TRANSPORT

The paper informs on the employment of specialized software products in ČD infrastructure management which enable detailed graphical presentation of the particular railway network elements in various displaying levels and a model work with data over displayed elements including necessary aggregations and comparisons.


 Document of the article


 Jaroslav Pazdziora

NEW INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN RAILWAY ELECTROTECHNICS AND POWER ENGINEERING

The paper gives an outline of the main applications of computer art and control engineering within the electrotechnical and power engineering branch of ČD as used both for centralized control of railway power facilities and for operational, technical and economic works. Basic functional, technical and program structure of the systems is described together with main areas of their use and conditions for their further development with a goal to create an integrated operational and technical information system for control and management within the railway infrastructure.


 Document of the article


 Luboš Toušek  Jaroslav Kačmařík  Jaromír Hrubý  Ivo Škvařil

TELECOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AT CZECH RAILWAYS AND ITS EMPLOYMENT IN ČD MAIN APPLICATIONS

The concepts "Telecommunication technology at Czech Railways" and "Employment of these technologies in ČD main applications" cover a number of topics. The paper gives an outline of particular areas and characterizes the activities which have been or which should be carried out at the ČD. The communication technologies undergo an intense development and provide new possibilities and tasks. The paper presents some of them: the influence of applications upon the networks development and new possibilities of network-accessible applications; interconnection of ČD networks with the public and international networks together with related problems of security concerning both network and information protection; providing of information to the external users; WWW technology at the ČD; influence of the telecommunication technology upon the organisation structure.


 Document of the article


 Josef Bernard

INTERNATIONAL INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN INFORMATION SYSTEMS OF EUROPEAN RAILWAYS

The material is an overview of present and next future interconnection between information systems of European railways. The main applications of international informatics for passenger and freight traffic are described here shortly. The paper focuses also on the communication and transmission system Hermes. The present and planned connection of ČD information systems to the international data exchange is explained.


 Document of the article


 Petr Červinka

VTS 04 - Complete Issue

Resume of the Anthology No. 04

1998 / 05

Foreign Level Crossing SIGNALLING Systems for Operation at ČD

The paper gives a brief survey of the foreign electronic level crossing systems installed at ČD. The reasons are explained leading to the testing of these systems, their brief description and recent experience gained from their service at ČD are presented. The paper closes with an analysis of learnings from implementation of foreign technologies into ČD conditions and with general consequences for the new type of level-crossing systems.


 Document of the article


 Libor Lochman

Automatic Train Operation "AVV"

Automatic train operation under driver´s supervision has been in regular daily use with EMU class 470 on the line Praha - Kolín since 1993. The onboard system comprises a central vehicle control device, speed governor and target braking with energy consumption optimation which enables stopping of trains at station platforms at points and times given by timetable (accuracy +/- 3 sec) at minimum traction energy consumption. The article contains a brief description of track equipment, route map and connections between the ATO system and existing ČD automatic train control system and between ATO and modern ATCs with speed control (e.g. Ericab 700 or ETCS).


 Document of the article


 Ivo Myslivec  Pavel Špaček  Božetěch Šula

Automatic Train Control for EMU Class 680

The paper presents the reasons leading to the proposal to equip the EMU class 680 with ATC. The function of particular installations situated in the EMU are explained with regard to the operation on the DBAG, ČD and ÖBB networks.


 Document of the article


 Bohumil Nádvorník

Train Control System ERTMS/ETCS

The aim of this article is to serve as a basic information about the new European train protection system. The purpose, concept, application potentiality and a behavior of the system in service can be found here. The actual status of the system development in Europe and ČD position are also included.


 Document of the article


 Václav Chudáček  Libor Lochman

European Digital Radio System for Railways-EIRENE

The paper gives a basic information on a part of an extensive project dealing with unified universal system of automatic train operation control in European railways designed for international paneuropean corridors. The author briefly describes the particular stages of the project, main functional properties of the new unified digital radio system for European railways and a share of ČD in the project. The new radio system, known as EIRENE GSM-R, is based on standard GSM completed by functions specific for railway operation.


 Document of the article


 Jiří Martinovský

ATM Elements Testing in ČD Telecommunication Network

The paper describes the testing procedures of ATM elements carried out by ČD to set a strategy of future development in data and voice networks and their integration into the unified telecommunication environment.


 Document of the article


 Pavel Bartoň

ATM Pilot Project in Olomouc

At present a question arises whether to build a backbone telecommunication network with SDH or ATM or using both of them. The testing of ATM installation should help to answer the question. Philips offers an ATM installation which operates with SDH or PDH transmissions and particular network cards work with those log sheets. Application of any technologies mentioned above depends upon wider use of optical fibre cables at ČD. Otherwise no of these technologies can be used.


 Document of the article


 Raimund Moliš

Track Geometry Parameters for Tilting Trains

The paper presents the main technical parameters as defined for the tilting system of trains developed for ČD (class 680) and main design parameters for the tilting train operation in accordance with ČSN 73 6360. The trains will be equipped with a forced tilting of car bodies based on the Italian Fiat Ferroviaria system. In the paper the reasons are explained for estimation of the designed track geometry parameters in connection with the tilting system°s technical parameters. Also the safety criteria for the curve negotiation at higher speeds are presented. It is refered to further design principles and operational requirements for the expected tilting train operation.


 Document of the article


 Vladimír Igielski

Pantograph-Overhead catenary Interaction

The author describes the development of an overhead contact line and pantograph enabling a reliable feeding of the electric tractive units. The paper deals with a single overhead catenary as well with a system now in use at ČD and describes the pantographs from a pole trolley to a today-used half-pantographs.


 Document of the article


 Jaroslav Novotný

VTS 05 - Complete Issue

Resume of the Anthology No. 05

1998 / 06

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION WITHIN CD

Results of protection of individual environmental components within Czech railways inclusive expenditures of Czech railways to moderate the environmental pollution resulting from the railway operational activities. The development of the pollution is presented for individual environmental components.


 Document of the article


 Petr Škapa

CZECH RAILWAYS ACTIVITIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE ECOLOGIC PROGRAMS OF THE UIC

Importance of an environmental protection in transport emphasising the ecological consideration of the railway transport. An active participation of CD in international projects of the UIC regarding the environmental protection. The attention which has been payed to the problems of the railway transport which is so friendly to the environment is the strategy of the UIC to improve its starting position in talks with the EU. The environmental protection within CD. Legal provisions concerning water management, water, ground and air protection as well as waste management comply with the european niveau. Insufficiency of existing normatives in the area of noise emissions should lead to better compliance with relevant EU documents.


 Document of the article


 Milan Hála

INFORMATION SOURCES FOR PRODUCERS AND CARRIERS OF DANGEROUS MATERIALS

Many data are to be known if a transport of dangerous chemistry products is to be safe. The article deals with data bases MEDIS-ALARM, dangerous products transport provisions and some data bases STN International. The article presents CD-ROM data bases which are significant information sources especially in the toxicology. It presents many information of a scientific-technical nature concerning individual products, many information about producers especially their production capacities and consumption structures on world markets. The best information source in above mentioned areas is the data base centre STN International, which is represented in the Czech Republic by Medistyl.


 Document of the article


 Jaroslav Horký  Bohumil Boček

ANTI-NOISE AND ANTI-VIBRATIONAL MEASURES USED WITHIN THE EUROPEAN RAILWAY NETWORK

A survey of anti-noise and anti-vibrational measures used by some European railways and some problems connected with the application. Some of measures mentioned have already been used in a construction of the CD corridor, some other are still studied or tested. Both types of measures moderate the harmful influence of a railway transport on the environment.


 Document of the article


 Jan Hlaváček

PROBLEMS OF A NOISE EMANATED BY A RAILWAY VEHICLE

Problems concerning a noise emanation of railway vehicles especially a description of noise sources in an audible as well as in non-audible frequency range. Ways of eliminating or reducing of acoustic energy. Problems arising from an experimental and numerical simulation of a rail-wheel contact.


 Document of the article


 Jan Kout  Rudolf Kaloč

ECOLOGY IN THE BRANCH OF PERMANENT WAY

A permanent way construction, methods of maintenance and management of materials gained in refurbishment as well as in modernisation of tracks have an influence on the environment especially in the vicinity of a railway. The noise of a railway transport can be reduced by active or passive provisions concerning the construction of permanent way. Rail grinding and elastic elements in rail fixation can be designated as active provisions whereas the construction of anti-noise walls is a typical passive provision. The art of an operational treatment of switches and the way how sleepers are impregnated have an direct influence on the environmental pollution. Recycling methods used for a balast gained from the track during refurbishment and modernisation of tracks as well as a repeated use of it for new track construction enable to reduce significantly the consumption of new balast materials, to reduce the waste stowed away in dumps and investments.


 Document of the article


 Jan Čihák  Jindřich Fajtl  Ladislav Kopsa  Jiří Šídlo

ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE FIELD OF AUTOMATION AND ELECTROTECHNICS

Determining the areas of main issues of ecology in the field of automation of railway transport and electrotechnics (branch 14). Emphasising the importance and priorities of typical environmental issues in the branch 14, also from legislative and technical points of view. Information on ongoing, adopted and implemented important solutions.


 Document of the article


 Bohumil Nádvorník  Vojtěch Kladívko

STATIC CHANGERS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS FOR CZECH RAILWAYS

The ecological and economic importance of the use of static changers as a replacement for diesel electric generator sets at railway stations, and on the basis of positive experience the development of a possibility of using these devices also in other areas of application at Czech Railways, including drive vehicles of a new generation for regional transport.


 Document of the article


 Zdeněk Beneš

ECONOMY OPERATION OF GAS BOILERS WITHIN CD AND NECESSARY MEASUREMENTS

Information about methods of efficiency measurements on boilers and emissions measurements known so far. Emphasis on the optimum operational economy of heating equipment by checking the operational efficiency of boilers, the adjustment of burners and allowable gaseous emission concentrations . Recommendation to install an automatic heating regulation in a heating system respecting the outside temperatures as the necessary condition to assure prescribed inside temperatures. It is the way how to attain a necessary economy of the whole heating system especially at those using high quality fuels.


 Document of the article


 Zbyněk Hejlík

RAILWAY AND ROAD TRANSPORTS COMPARED IN TERMS OF AIR POLLUTION AND USE OF PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCES

Air pollution caused by railway and road transports. Establishing of emissions. Specific emissions and their calculations at diesel and electric traction vehicles. Comparison of emissions caused by individual transport modes. Emissions caused by a railway transport established on the base of fuel and electric energy consumption. Calculations of a primary energy. Energy consumption of a transport.


 Document of the article


 Petr Škapa

INFORMATION SOURCES CONCERNING THE ENVIRONMENT ON THE CZECH INTERNET

Problems of creating information companies in conditions of the Czech republic, especially as far as data spread about the environment via Internet. References to information sources concerning the environment oriented especially railway transport, available on the czech www-servers.


 Document of the article


 Jaroslava Machalíková

VTS 06 - Complete Issue

Resume of the Anthology No. 06

1999 / 07

TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM ERTMS/ETCS (Part 2)

The paper deals with details about basic functions of the system and about the technical solution of the track mounted part of it. The status and problems of introducing the system are discussed too.


 Document of the article


 Václav Chudáček  Libor Lochman

ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY OF EXISTING RAILWAY BRIDGES

The paper gives the basic information about probabilistic methods used for reliability calculations of existing railway bridges. It describes the basic concepts, differences of new design and some more significant calculation procedures. It explains basic principles of reliability calculation developed by University of Pardubice.


 Document of the article


 Hynek Šertler

MEASURING CAR FOR OVERHEAD LINE

Measurement of an overhead line is a diagnostics procedure which determines the properties of an overhead line. The measurements are carried out by the means of a measuring car the technical parameters of which meet the requirements of measurements of two main groups of parameter of en overhead line, i.e. geometric parameters and dynamic parameters. The complete measuring equipment is concentrated in this mobile means.


 Document of the article


 Josef Konvičný  Jiří Kaštura  Petr Sedláček

TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM SIGNAL DIAGNOSTICS

The article describes a new method of monitoring and signal quality analysis of a train line control system which is transmitted from the track to a vehicle. The method enables to determine critical areas and failure causes.


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 Pavel Štolcbart

VEHICLE AND RAIL

The paper deals with problems concerning the cinematic as well as force relation between vehicle and rail especially those which are less known within CD. It is based on knowledge gained by members of Departement Transport Means of the Jan Perner´s Transport faculty of University Pardubice within last ten years especially during the solution of the project Vehicle and rail on refurbished tracks of the CD. The paper explains the inception of an unquiet , in some cases even unstable ride of vehicles on tracks with very good lateral and vertical alignment. For the first time there is a definition of an unstable ride in connection with other requirements of the UIC Leaflet 518.


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 Jiří Izer

CURVES OF THE SMALL TEST CIRCUIT AS TEST TRACK WITH EXPOSED TEST SECTIONS ACCORDING THE UIC LEAFLET 518

The paper deals with problems concerning the test sections which are prescribed by the UIC Leaflet 518. It is concentrated on test curves with cant deficiency Ur in the range 137 L Ur L 150 mm. On the Test Circuit there are test sections with prescribed cant deficiency. The length of those sections is approximately 10% of the overall length of test sections prescribed by the Leaflet UIC 518. The rest , i.e. 90 % of the test sections length must be found out on other tracks of the CD.


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 Antonín Vaněček

TRACK BED DIAGNOSTICS USING RADAR METHOD

The paper is dedicated to radar method and its usage as a diagnostic method for the track bed as a part of geotechnic survey. Possibilities of using so called georadar in connection with a measuring car for a complex diagnostics of the track superstructure for the complete check of a track is discussed.


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 Jiří Vlachý

DEFECTOSCOPIC CHECK OF RAILS ON THE CORRIDOR TRACKS - THE PRESENT AND PROSPECT

The paper deals with problems concerning the defectoscopic check of rails and switch parts for trains at speeds up to 160 km/h. It is concentrated on necessary equipment (hand devices, defectoscopic cars), possibilities of elaborating the check results and optimum organization of defectoscopic activities on corridor tracks of the CD.


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 Gustav Koutník

NEW DIAGNOSTICS MEANS FOR MEASUREMENTS OF THE TRACK SUPERSTRUCTURE WITHIN CZECH RAILWAYS

In the year 1999 the Technical Centre of the Infrastructure Praha opens the operation of newly developed diagnostic means - measuring car for the track superstructure and measuring draisine. Both of them are destined for measurements of the geometric properties of the track. The measuring car is fitted out with systems enabling measurements of a cross section of rails, microgeometry of the rail head surface and of evaluation the vehicle response. These new measuring means will replace the obsolete measuring car of the soviet production , which has assured these activities since second half of eighties. The development of these means was materialized by Výzkumný ústav železniční, Pardubice in collaboration with foreign producers and with Technical Centre of the Infrastructure Praha.


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 Petr Sychrovský

MEASUREMENT OF A TRACK PASSAGE CROSS SECTION

Integrated digital diagnostics systems of a passage cross section of a track using the fotogrammetry create a base for effective and objective decision processes especially in the area of transport economics but in the area of special deformation monitoring of complicated , statically exacting and unremovable objects of CD (tunnels, cuttings, bridges and so on), of CAD designing as well and last but not least in an effective management of CD information system with prospective link-up to data base of the CD. In these days the Czech Railways are developing a digital diagnostics system using the experience acquired with analogue and semidigital fotogrammetry system FS 3.


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 Roman Tomek  Antonín Trubák